Research Projects



Walking Quality in Clinical Populations


Characteristics of how people with neurological or musculoskeletal conditions walk can influence a person's ability to fully participate in their activities of daily life. The movement biomechanics of the lower limb joints involved in successfully navigating the environment affect walking speed, risk of falling, joint and tissue loading, and even the risk for further damage to injured joints. 


Selected Recent Publications

Hawkins J. L., Williams, G. N., & Milner, C. E. (2023). Changes in walking biomechanics after a 30-min exercise bout in sedentary compared with active young women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 55, 722-726. DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000003083. 


Milner, C. E., Meardon, S., Hawkins J. L., & Willson, J. D. (2018). Walking velocity and step length adjustments affect knee joint contact forces in healthy weight and obese adults. Journal of Orthopedic Research, 36, 2679-2686. DOI:10.1002/jor.24031

Running Injury Biomechanics


People who run for fun, fitness, and exercise continue to be at a high risk of experiencing an overuse injury due to their repeated pavement pounding. With the typical runner taking around 1500 steps for every mile of running, small deviations in running biomechanics can increase the risk of injury. Gait laboratory analysis of runners provides a deep dive into the movements and loads at each lower limb joint 200 times a second to aid our understanding of the biomechanics of running injury. Combining these detailed measurements with monitoring during running outside the lab with precision research-grade wearables is bringing further insights. 


Selected Recent Publications

Miltko, A., Milner, C. E., Powell, D. P., & Paquette, M. R. (2022). The influence of surface and speed on biomechanical external loads obtained from wearable devices in rearfoot strike runners. Sports Biomechanics. DOI: 10.1080/14763141.2022.2129089.


Foch, E., Brindle, R. A., & Milner, C. E. (2020). Weak associations between hip adduction angle and hip abductor muscle activity during running. Journal of Biomechanics, 110, 109965. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109965.


Brindle, R. A., Ebaugh, D. D., Willson, J. D., Finley, M. A., Shewokis, P. A., & Milner, C. E. (2020). Relationships of hip abductor strength, neuromuscular control, and relative hip width with peak hip adduction angle in healthy female runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, published online. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1779489. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1779489.


Milner, C. E., Hawkins, J. L., & Aubol, K. G., (2020). Tibial acceleration during running is higher in field testing than indoor testing. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 52, 1361-1366. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002261.


Foch, E., Aubol, K. G., & Milner, C. E. (2020). Relationship between iliotibial band syndrome and hip neuromechanics in women runners. Gait and Posture, 77, 64-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.12.021.


Foch, E., & Milner, C. E. (2019). Influence of previous iliotibial band syndrome on coordination patterns and coordination variability in female runners. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 35, 205-311. DOI: 10.1123/jab.2018-0350.


Bowser, B. J., Fellin, R., Milner, C. E., Pohl, M. B., & Davis, I. S. (2018). Reducing impact loading in runners: A one-year follow-up. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 50, 2500-2506. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001710.



Biomechanical Measurement Tools and Wearable Devices


We must know how accurate and precise our biomechanical measurement tools and devices are to have confidence in the numbers they give us. Tools with a large measurement error or inconsistent readings can lead to incorrect conclusions about the biomechanics of human movement. Determining these psychometric properties for commercially available measurement tools and wearable devices provides needed technical information to help us interpret research findings appropriately. 


Selected Recent Publications

Aubol, K. G., & Milner, C. E. (2023). Minimum sampling frequency for valid and reliable tibial acceleration measurements during running in the field. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, in press.


Hawkins, J. L., & Milner, C. E. (2021). Within-session reliability and minimum detectable differences for discrete lower extremity angles and moments during walking. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 37, 477-480. DOI: 10.1123/jab.2020-0397.


Reenalda, J., Zandbergen, M. A., Harbers, J. D., Paquette, M. R., & Milner, C. E. (2021). Detection of foot contact in treadmill running with inertial and optical measurement systems. Journal of Biomechanics, 121, 110419. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110419.


Aubol, K. G., Hawkins, J. L., & Milner, C. E. (2020). Tibial acceleration reliability and minimal detectable difference during overground and treadmill running. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 36, 457-459. DOI: 10.1123/jab.2019-0272.


Aubol, K. G., & Milner, C. E. (2020). Foot contact identification using a single triaxial accelerometer during running. Journal of Biomechanics, 105, 109768. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109768. 


Brindle, R. A., Ebaugh, D. D., & Milner, C. E. (2018). Intra-tester reliability and construct validity of the hip abductor eccentric strength test. Journal of Sports Rehabilitation, 27. DOI: 10.1123/jsr.2017-0177.